Still, the heartbreaking stories of alcoholism are still in the news. According to the 2015 US Drug Use and Health Survey (NSDUH), 26.9% of people 18 years of age or older experience binge drinking, 7% heavy alcohol use, and 6.2% alcohol use disorders. (Alcohol Use Disorder; AUD).
While it had been said that beer with pizza is the ultimate comfort food, this had been contradicted by the 2014 WHO report on alcohol consumption, 6.3% of Korean adults are alcoholic (use alcohol-use disorders = 4.7% + harmful use of alcohol 1.5%), or alcoholism. This is 1.5 times the global average of 4.2%.
Alcohol addiction, which we commonly refer to, is a term similar to alcohol disability, which can be seen as a combination of alcohol dependence and abuse.
Alcohol Use Disorder Based on Symptoms
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) recommends diagnosing ‘alcohol use disorder’ based on 10 symptoms.
- Drinking more or longer than intended
- Uncontrolled and continually controlling alcohol consumption
- Spending a lot of effort and time to drink alcohol
- Cannot think properly because of the thought of wanting to drink alcohol
- Due to continued drinking does not function properly at work, school, or home, that is, alcohol results in poor performance, students are often absent and grades lower, neglecting household chores
- Continue drinking despite problems with family or friends due to persistent drinking
- Abandon other important, interesting or pleasant activities to drink
- Physically dangerous Continue to drink alcohol in situations that may result, i.e., operate the machine while drunk or drunk, or Continues drinking even with the development of a new disorder
- Ethanol resistance: drinking more alcohol to achieve the desired effect
- Withdrawal symptoms, mild symptoms disorder, 4-5 symptoms Symptoms were divided into moderate disorders and six or more symptoms were classified as severe disorders.
Causes of Alcoholism
The causes of alcoholism are diverse and complex, but the formation and severity of alcoholism is influenced by mental and personal factors such as personality and individual vulnerability, seeking newness, and biological factors such as stress, genetic differences and neurotransmission, and socio-cultural factors such as accessibility and attitude. Depends.
Of course, the formation of resistance, which slows the alcohol reaction, also plays a role in the formation of alcoholism. Customary drinking induces alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol metabolism enzymes such as CYP2E1, 1A2, and 3A4, which contributes to an increase in alcohol degradation rate, and when brain nerves are repeatedly exposed to alcohol, their reactivity is weakened by changes in target molecules to which alcohol acts. . That is, alcohol resistance is formed by increasing the rate of alcohol decomposition or weakening the reactivity to alcohol.
Can alcohol be the answer to stress relief?
According to a duplicate survey of the 2016 market research firm Mbrain’s Trend Monitor, 41.8% of those who drink to relieve stress replied. Although light drinking relieves stress, the relationship between stress and drinking is so complex that drinking can act as stress.
Mild drinking can contribute to relieving anxiety or stress, and animal and human application studies have shown that stress contributes to the onset of drinking, habitual drinking and recurrence after a week.
However, alcohol can create a stressful environment in the body. Stress bioreactions are known to be the result of changes in the brain and the endocrine system, which are connected to the hypothalamus-Anterior pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA axis). When a stimulus is perceived as stress, the hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which goes to the anterior pituitary gland and secretes corticosteroid hormone (ACTH). ACTH travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands and secretes cortisols. Secreted CRF, ACTH and cortisols trigger various stress-related bioreactions.
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